Message Confidentiality v Integrity

Message confidentiality is quite different to message integrity as confidentiality implies that the ciphertext has not been read whereas integrity implies that the data has been received as intended (i.e. as it was sent without alteration). As such confidentiality and integrity are mutually exclusive and one can exist without the other. Suppose a message was sent encrypted, the aim of encryption is to preserve confidentiality, assuming the decryption key is not known, yet it is possible that the message could be changed without the recipient detecting that any change has taken place. Alternatively if a message was sent without encryption it could be read (i.e. not confidential) but could be received as intended and maintain its integrity. It is also possible to have messages to that maintain both confidentiality and integrity (the objective of cryptography) or neither where a message is subject to a successful Man-In-The-Middle attack and the attacker can both read and alter the message.